JavaScript cheatsheet

2 minute read

December 10, 2020

Based on Dylan Israel’s awesome Scrimba Frontend Interview Tips. I wrote a few code examples to understand these concepts better. Shoutout to the awesome Josh Comeau for his incredible operator lookup tool.

Table of contents

Q: What is the difference between undefined and undeclared?

Undefined means that the variable has been declared but has not had a value assigned to it. Undeclared is that it hasn’t been declared.

if (false) {
  let firstNameLet = "Alejandro"
  var firstNameVar = "Alejandro"
}

console.log(firstNameVar) // undefined
console.log(firstNameLet) // ReferenceError: firstNameLet is not defined

Q: What are falsy values in JavaScript?

A: A set of unique values that evaluate to false.

const falsy = [
  null, 0, undefined, false, NaN, "", -0, 0n
  ]

console.log(falsy.some(el => el)) // false

Q: What are the differences between const, let, and var?

A: const and let use a block scope (anything between curly brackets) while var uses lexical scope.

const stores values that will not be reassigned. They can be mutated.

const user = { name: "Alejandro" }
user.name = "Alex"
console.log(user) // { name: 'Alex' }

Var uses hoisting, this means that the variable is declared before any of the code runs. In JS, variable and function declarations are put into memory during the compile phase.

This is why you can call a function before it’s been declared

catName("Tamal")

function catName(name) {
  console.log("My cat's name is " + name)
  // My cat's name is Tamal
}

JavaScript only hoists declarations, not initializations.

console.log(num) // undefined
var num // Declaration
num = 6 // Initialization

Q: What is the difference between == vs === ?

This operator checks to see if two values are equivalent. Returns a boolean value. == ignores the type and focuses on the value. === does a strict check and checks both type and value.

const value1 = 5
const value2 = "5"

console.log(value1 == value2) // true
console.log(value1 === value2) // false

Q: What do map(), filter() and reduce() do?

Map applies the callback to each value. Returns an array with the results.

const nums = [1, 2, 3]
const numsAddOne = nums.map(value => value + 1)
console.log(numsAddOne) // [2,3,4]

Filter applies the callback but only passes the elements that return true.

const nums = [1, 2, 3, 4]
const evenNums = nums.filter(value => value % 2 === 0)
console.log(evenNums) // [2, 4]

Reduce takes a callback with two arguments, the first one is the accumulator, the second is the current value. It takes a second argument which is the initial accumulator value.

For each of the elements in the array, the callback is applied and the result becomes the new accumulator.

const nums = [1, 2, 3]
const sum = nums.reduce((total, current) => {
  return total + current
}, 0)

console.log(sum) // 6

Q: What is the difference between undefined and null?

While undefined means that something doesn’t exist, null means something has no value. It’s preferable to have null values that might change later rather than undefined. Friendlier code

What are some JavaScript data types?

Primitives: String, boolean, numbers, BigInt, Symbol. Non-primitives: [ ], { }, Map (objects with unique keys that are beyond strings), Set (arrays with unique values)

What do the spread and rest operators do?

Spread

The spread operator can be used to unwrap an array or an object.

It can also be used to clone or merge arrays and objects.

const users = ["dinosaur", "pumpkin", "cat"]
const allUsers = ["Mr. Dog", ...users]

console.log(users)
// [ 'dinosaur', 'pumpkin', 'cat' ]
console.log(allUsers)
// [ 'Mr. Dog', 'dinosaur', 'pumpkin', 'cat' ]

This operator is used in function definitions to collect additional function arguments. Useful when you don’t know how many parameters a function needs. It collects them into an array.

function easy(a, b, c) {
  console.log("Easy as", a, b, c)
}
const letters = ["A", "B", "C"]
easy(...letters) // Easy as A B C

concatenate an array

const a = ["Mr. Dog", "Mrs. Dog"]
const b = ["Pup", "Little Dog"]

const family = [...a, ...b]

console.log(family)
//[ 'Mr. Dog', 'Mrs. Dog', 'Pup', 'Little Dog' ]

Rest

Does the opposite of spread. It collects a function’s arguments into an array. It’s useful when you don’t know how many parameters a function needs.

function order(...elements) {
  elements.forEach(el => console.log(el))
}
order("fries", "milkshake", "cheesburger")
//fries
//milkshake
//cheesburger

Q: What is and why might you destructure an object or array?

Destrucuring provides context. It’s intended to make code easier to read.

Destructuring

Destructuring objects

const scores = {
  water: 5,
  wine: 11,
  milk: 4,
  beer: 7,
}
const { wine: fav, ...others } = scores

console.log("How would you rate wine?", fav)
//How would you rate wine? 11

Now let’s do arrays

const user = "Paul Hollywood 🍰"
const [first, last, emoji] = user.split(" ")

console.log(`${first} loves ${emoji}`)
//Paul loves 🍰

Q: What is the difference between the && and || operators?

|| returns the first truthy value. If there are none, it returns the last element.

Think about it as detectives inside an interrogation room |🕵️‍♀️🕵️‍♂️| They’re trying to find true statements 🔍

&& returns the first falsy value. If there are none, it returns the last element.

Think about this one as the superhero 🦸‍♀️ with the && printed on their costume. They’re looking for the false statements and bringing them to justice 🚔

See them in action:

const isFrench = true

const greeting = str => console.log(str)

// If statement
if (isFrench) {
  greeting("bonjour! if 🥐")
} else {
  greeting("hi! if 🍞")
}
// bonjour! if 🥐

// Ternary operator
isFrench ? greeting("bonjour! ? 🥐") : greeting("hi! ? 🍞")
// bonjour! ? 🥐

// Or operator
!isFrench || greeting("bonjour! || 🥐")
isFrench || greeting("hi! || 🍞")
// bonjour! || 🥐

// And operator
isFrench && greeting("bonjour! && 🥐")
!isFrench && greeting("hi! && 🍞")
// bonjour! && 🥐

References:

This cheatsheet is based on Dylan Israel’s awesome Scrimba Frontend Interview Tips.

Checkout Josh Comeau’s Operator Lookup for even more operator fun!

- 🧡 Alejandro


Alejandro Aspinwall
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